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Pâté de Jambon – Anonymous German Heirs and Glasgow City Council

Pâté de Jambon – Anonymous German Heirs and Glasgow City Council

“Pâté de Jambon”, a painting by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, was the object of a forced sale in 1936. The owners, the Jewish shareholders of an art gallery, were forced to sell the artwork to meet an unfair Nazi tax demand.

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Portrait of Wally – United States and Estate of Lea Bondi and Leopold Museum

Portrait of Wally – United States and Estate of Lea Bondi and Leopold Museum

After having been taken from Lea Bondi, a Jew forced to flee Austria following the Anschluss, the painting “Portrait of Wally” by Egon Schiele was seized by the US Forces at the end of the war. The portrait was first returned by the US Restitution Division to the Austrian Federal Office for Preservation of Historical Monument (BDA).

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Quedlinburg Treasures – Quedlinburg Church and Meador Heirs

Quedlinburg Treasures – Quedlinburg Church and Meador Heirs

After the withdrawal of US troops from the medieval town of Quedlinburg in Nazi Germany, the “Quedlinburg Treasures” were found to be missing. This theft was perpetrated by US soldier Joe T. Meador. After his death, the manuscripts passed on to his brother and sister who attempted to sell them. Some manuscripts were purchased by West German entities, whereas the Church of Quedlinburg purchased the rest of the treasures pursuant to a settlement agreement with the Meador Heirs.

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Road to Calvary – Oppenheimer Heirs and Private Person

In 1935, Nazi authorities took from Jakob and Rosa Oppenheimer a painting entitled “Road to Calvary” by Brunswijker Monogrammist and sold it at auction. The painting resurfaced in 2006 when a Dutch private individual brought it to Sotheby’s determined to sell it. Instead of asking for the painting’s restitution, the Oppenheimer heirs demanded a portion of the sale’s proceeds. The Dutch Restitutions Committee issued a binding opinion on the matter, as requested by the parties.

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Sammlung 101 - City of Bremen, Kunsthalle Bremen and Russia

Sammlung 101 - City of Bremen, Kunsthalle Bremen and Russia

In the 1990s, Russia and the City of Bremen began to negotiate for the return of “Sammlung 101”, a collection of 101 drawings. The drawings were transferred from the Kunsthalle Bremen (Bremen Art Museum) to Russia in the aftermath of the Second World War by a Soviet soldier.

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St. Agatha Statue – St. Martin’s Church and Private Person

St. Agatha Statue – St. Martin’s Church and Private Person

In November 2012, Sotheby’s offered at auction a meter-tall statue of St. Agatha, by the Dutch sculptor Jan van Steffieswert (1465-1530). It was stolen in 1976 from St. Martin’s Church, in Gronsveld, the Netherlands.

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Sumpflegende – Héritiers Lissitzky-Küppers et Ville de Munich

Sumpflegende – Héritiers Lissitzky-Küppers et Ville de Munich

Après 25 ans de litige juridique et de négociation, le sort de « Sumpflegende », un tableau de Paul Klee prêté à une galerie allemande en 1926 puis confisqué par les Nazis au titre d’art « dégénéré », est scellé. En juillet 2017, les héritiers de Sophie Lissitzky-Küppers, laquelle avait prêté le tableau, concluent un accord avec la Ville de Munich et une fondation privée. L’œuvre reste exposée dans un musée munichois et les héritiers Lissitzky-Küppers sont indemnisés.

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Tête du roi Badu Bonsu II – Ghana et Pays-Bas

Tête du roi Badu Bonsu II – Ghana et Pays-Bas

En 1838, Badu Bonsu II, roi des Ahanta du Ghana, est condamné à mort par les autorités coloniales néerlandaises. Il sera pendu et décapité. Sa tête sera transportée aux Pays-Bas. Par la suite, un accord de restitution de cette tête sera signé à La Haye entre les gouvernements néerlandais et ghanéen ainsi qu’un représentant de la tribu Ahanta.

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Tête égyptienne fragmentaire – Musée d’ethnographie de Neuchâtel et Service des antiquités de l’Egypte

Tête égyptienne fragmentaire –  Musée d’ethnographie de Neuchâtel et  Service des antiquités de l’Egypte

En 1926, l’archéologue Gustave Jéquier, collaborateur du Musée ethnographique de Neuchâtel, obtient en négociant avec le Service des antiquités d’Egypte, divers objets égyptiens précieux en échange d’une tête monumentale fragmentaire découverte et ramenée d’Egypte la même année. Cette tête est alors retournée au Musée égyptien du Caire.

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Tête Maorie de Genève – Ville de Genève et Nouvelle-Zélande

Tête Maorie de Genève – Ville de Genève et Nouvelle-Zélande

En 1992, la Ville de Genève décide de restituer une tête maorie appartenant aux collections du Musée d’ethnographie de la Ville de Genève à la Nouvelle-Zélande sous la forme d’un prêt. En 2011, suite à la prolongation de ce prêt, la Ville de Genève restitue définitivement la tête maorie à la Nouvelle-Zélande.

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The Windmill – Rüdenberg Heirs v. City of Hannover

The Windmill – Rüdenberg Heirs v. City of Hannover

Max Rüdenberg, a Jewish salesman and art collector, acquired several modern art pieces beginning in the late 1910s. Due to the discriminatory Nazi politics, the Rüdenberg family was forced to sell the art collection, including the painting “The Windmill” by Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.

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Three Nok and Sokoto Sculptures – Nigeria and France

Three Nok and Sokoto Sculptures – Nigeria and France

The French government bought three Nok and Sokoto sculptures from a private dealer in 1998. Soon after it obtained the consent of Nigeria on the acquisition, two of these sculptures were exhibited in the newly opened Pavillon des Sessions of the Louvre Museum.

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Troy Gold – Turkey and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

Troy Gold – Turkey and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

In September 2012, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology decided to loan indefinitely to Turkey a collection of antique jewelry that the Museum had acquired in 1966. The collection was probably illicitly excavated in Troy, a city in Northwest Turkey. In return, Turkey agreed to provide the Museum important loans and further collaboration in the field of archaeology.

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Two Lithographs of the Glaser Collection – Glaser Heirs and Kunstmuseum Basel

Two Lithographs of the Glaser Collection –  Glaser Heirs and Kunstmuseum Basel

In 1933, the Kunstmuseum Basel purchased about 200 drawings and prints at the Max Perl auction in Berlin. These works belonged to Curt Glaser, a Jewish art collector and director of the Art Library in Berlin. In 2004, the Glaser heirs requested the Kunstmuseum to return two artworks by Edvard Munch, but the Museum refused. Following negociations, the Kunstmuseum Basel and the heirs of Curt Glaser reached a seemingly “just and fair solution”.

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Venus of Cyrene – Italy and Libya

Venus of Cyrene – Italy and Libya

In 1913, Italian soldiers deployed at Cyrene, Libya, found a headless marble sculpture, commonly known today as the “Venus of Cyrene”. In 1915, the statue was shipped to Italy, where it was placed on display in the Museo Nazionale delle Terme of Rome.

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Warehouse Fire – Gillian Ayres et al. and Momart

Warehouse Fire – Gillian Ayres et al. and Momart

One of the most significant cases in Great Britain in the recent years concerns the Momart Warehouse Fire, where a warehouse owned by Momart burned down in 2004 causing the destruction of a great amount of artworks by renowned British artists (the Brit Art movement). Following the filing of a class action, Momart decided to mediate the case and to settle by a secret payout.

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Wasco Sally Bag – American dealer and Paul Cary and the Yakama Nation Museum

Wasco Sally Bag – American dealer and Paul Cary and the Yakama Nation Museum

In 2007, Paul Cary acquired a Wasco Sally bag, an object from the Native American group, the Yakama Nation, from an American dealer. When Paul Cary learned that the bag was stolen from the Yakama Nation Museum, he returned it to the dealer and informed the museum. Subsequent negotiations initiated between the museum and the dealer would have remained unfruitful, if it was not for the involvement of Paul Cary. He offered the dealer financial compensation for half of his losses should he return the bag to the museum. Moreover, he would attempt to obtain the financing of the second half from the Yakama tribe. The parties agreed.

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Waurà Indians Collection – Museum der Kulturen Basel, Penteado Coelho Heirs and Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia Universidade de São Paulo, Waurà Indians

Waurà Indians Collection – Museum der Kulturen Basel, Penteado Coelho Heirs and Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia Universidade de São Paulo, Waurà Indians

Vera Penteado Coelho, a Brazilian ethnologist, bequeathed to the Museum der Kulturen Basel her collection of Waurà cultural objects. Following opposition from the Waurà Indians and the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia Universidade de São Paulo, the Basel Museum entered into negotiations to allow the collection to remain in Brazil. Eight years later, in 2008, the collection was donated to the São Paulo Museum.

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Weary Herakles – Turkey and Museum of Fine Arts Boston

Weary Herakles – Turkey and Museum of Fine Arts Boston

The “Weary Herakles” is a Roman marble statue that was excavated in 1980 in Perge, Turkey. In 1981, the Museum of Fine Arts Boston acquired a half-interest in the upper part of the sculpture, while the other half-interest was owned by collectors Leon Levy and Shelby White.

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Young Couple in a Landscape – Feldmann Heirs and British Museum

Young Couple in a Landscape – Feldmann Heirs and British Museum

Czech-Jewish Arthur Feldmann’s collection of drawings, including “Young Couple in a Landscape”, was illegally seized and liquidated by the Gestapo in 1939. The painting was later acquired by the collector Edmund Schilling in the 1960s, who donated it to the British Museum in 1997. Uri Peled, Feldmann’s grandson, made a claim to the drawing a few years later.

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